Randomly distributed networks: Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the 1980s. This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity, and at the node-level, homophily and attribute-based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network ties. Parameters are given in terms of the prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network emerges. These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micro-networks, allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social behavior.[42]


Data-driven advertising: Users generate a lot of data in every step they take on the path of customer journey and Brands can now use that data to activate their known audience with data-driven programmatic media buying. Without exposing customers' privacy, users' Data can be collected from digital channels (e.g.: when customer visits a website, reads an e-mail, or launches and interact with brand's mobile app), brands can also collect data from real world customer interactions, such as brick and mortar stores visits and from CRM and Sales engines datasets. Also known as People-based marketing or addressable media, Data-driven advertising is empowering brands to find their loyal customers in their audience and deliver in real time a much more personal communication, highly relevant to each customers' moment and actions.[37]

This social networking site enables you to post short text messages (called tweets), containing a limited number of characters (up to 140), to convey your message to the world. With the growing craze for online shopping, Twitter also makes it possible to promote your businesses and even shop directly through tweets. Learn how to create the perfect Twitter profile.
What a horrible thing to happen. It is so important that we don't rush to allow our kids to use social media too early. They need to be mature enough to be able to spot predators, and old enough to tell parents if it happens. It's also so important that parents educate themselves on what these apps, do. What the content is inside the apps ,does it have privacy settings that actually block and protect your child. Sadly so many parents don't seek out education around technology or cyber safety. Most parents think it won't happen to their child, they also believe they know enough. I teach I.T teachers about cyber safety. Cyber Safety education is a very specialised area, no matter how much experience you have with computers and the internet, parents need to learn HOW their kids are using these things. Don't think you know enough...find out for sure! If you have the opportunity to attend a technology or cyber safety talk please go, and take your friends. Knowledge is power.
For example, to implement PPC using Google AdWords, you'll bid against other companies in your industry to appear at the top of Google's search results for keywords associated with your business. Depending on the competitiveness of the keyword, this can be reasonably affordable, or extremely expensive, which is why it's a good idea to focus building your organic reach, too.

The development of digital marketing is inseparable from technology development. One of the key points in the start of was in 1971, where Ray Tomlinson sent the very first email and his technology set the platform to allow people to send and receive files through different machines.[8] However, the more recognisable period as being the start of Digital Marketing is 1990 as this was where the Archie search engine was created as an index for FTP sites. In the 1980s, the storage capacity of computer was already big enough to store huge volumes of customer information. Companies started choosing online techniques, such as database marketing, rather than limited list broker.[9] This kind of databases allowed companies to track customers' information more effectively, thus transforming the relationship between buyer and seller. However, the manual process was not so efficient.

Kik - Just like internetlovingteen said, it's rated 17+ for a reason. It's absolutely not for kids. WhatsApp - Heard of it, but never used it. Group Me - Never heard of it. Instagram - Relatively safe, however, it does have some explicit content. Tumblr - There's some pornographic content on it, but you can search for certain things you like, so it's relatively safe if you don't wander into the explicit sections of it. Twitter - Relatively safe as long as you set it to private. Has some swearing. Musical.ly - Relatively safe, however, some songs have swearing and/or explicit content. YouNow - Never heard of it. Periscope - Heard of it, but never used it. Live.ly - Never heard of it. Burn Note - Never heard of it. Snapchat - A bit difficult to use and can potentially have explicit content. Would not recommend for kids. Whisper - Can potentially have NSFW content and things like suicide, self-harm, and drugs. Not for kids. Also rated 17+ for a reason. Yik Yak - Heard of it, but never used it. MeetMe - Not for kids. Omegle - Not for kids. Tinder - Can have explicit and sexual content. It's generally used for hook-ups instead of long-term dating relationships. Do not let kids on this app.
The basis of Heterophily Theory was the finding in one study that more numerous weak ties can be important in seeking information and innovation, as cliques have a tendency to have more homogeneous opinions as well as share many common traits. This homophilic tendency was the reason for the members of the cliques to be attracted together in the first place. However, being similar, each member of the clique would also know more or less what the other members knew. To find new information or insights, members of the clique will have to look beyond the clique to its other friends and acquaintances. This is what Granovetter called "the strength of weak ties".[47]
My child was lured by a complete stranger on Instagram. I am NOT a lax parent, in fact, very far from it, but you CAN NOT compete with a predator. They are professionals. They can be anyone they want on a profile, and kids generally believe this stuff. Kids want more "likes" and followers. These predators can know where your kids go to school, anything they want just by keeping up with your kids posts! Please BE NOSEY! Don't make the mistake I made, and then have to deal with what we are dealing with. This is literally every parents nightmare. It's a hard toss-up because you want your kids to be able to contact you, but at what cost? Their lives? I know mine is LITERALLY lucky to be alive. Predators manipulate, lie, groom, tell your kids what they want to hear. If you live in a small area like we do, it wouldn't be hard just from following posts to find out where you live, where your kids go to school. You think this could never happen to you, BUT IT CAN HAPPEN, and does happen WAY MORE THAN YOU THINK! I think I read it's a 100% chance kids will be contacted by a predator online these days no matter how strict you are (I was very strict and always wanted to be in the know about what our kid was doing, with whom, and where) but it still wasn't enough. Now my child is a victim, we get to go through a lengthy court battle b/c I had this person arrested, and I also have to carry the guilt of providing them with a cell phone. It's not just the kids that have no supervision, trust me, PLEASE, if a predator wants to get at your kid, they will. This is why they are called predators because they PREY on kids. I hope that someone reads this and at least considers what I am telling you, because if one kid doesn't have to go through what we are going through, it was worth making this comment!
On a fall night in 2003, Harvard undergrad and computer programming genius Mark Zuckerberg sits down at his computer and heatedly begins working on a new idea. In a fury of blogging and programming, what begins in his dorm room soon becomes a global social network and a revolution in communication. A mere six years and 500 million friends later, Mark Zuckerberg is the youngest billionaire in history... but for this entrepreneur, success leads to both personal and legal complications. Written by Columbia Pictures
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There are lots of ways you can optimize your digital marketing assets for mobile users, and when implementing any digital marketing strategy, it's hugely important to consider how the experience will translate on mobile devices. By ensuring this is always front-of-mind, you'll be creating digital experiences that work for your audience, and consequently achieve the results you're hoping for.
Content marketing specialists are the digital content creators. They frequently keep track of the company's blogging calendar, and come up with a content strategy that includes video as well. These professionals often work with people in other departments to ensure the products and campaigns the business launches are supported with promotional content on each digital channel.
Honestly, there's good and bad in anything the world throws at us. And Social Media is no exception. First of all, most social media (including Facebook) users have to be at least 13 to even sign up so there's no reason for "tweens" to be on them at all. That being said I've noticed that tweens that ignore the rules aren't very familiar with what's not acceptable. Most social media platforms are supposed to be only available for 13+ because the Internet is in fact a scary place and most children don't know how to use the Internet responsibly until their 13 or 14. On another note, I think it's important that parents are aware of what goes on on social media, however, unless you're child is under the age of 14 it's not acceptable to monitor everything and creep on their page and check their phone because even though you do have the right to know what's going on, your child is now a teenager, their probably in high school and they need "privacy". Always checking what their doing will more than likely result in you losing their trust because Parents, you don't need to know every single thing. If you're child is old enough to have a their own phone and almost finished with school, their old enough to have a private life. And I will be blunt when I say this, if you monitor your teenagers social media they will do at least one of the following: block you, make their account private, or make a new account that you won't find. And they won't do it because they're hiding something, they'll do it because they need space. Social Media is only dangerous when people don't know how to use it and regardless of how hard parents try to " protect" their children, it's ultimately up to the child to protect themselves. Their is a block button and privacy settings for a reason. Only the user can control it. And a tip for parents: not letting your child use social media when they ask to will only make them ignorant to it. This generation... My generation and the generation after me, we're growing up in the digital age and if you don't let your kid learn now it's going to take a while for them to get caught up later. Social Media is always changing and it's just part of our culture now. It's not dangerous unless you let it be.
Digital marketing and its associated channels are important – but not to the exclusion of all else. It’s not enough to just know your customers; you must know them better than anybody else so you can communicate with them where, when and how they are most receptive to your message. To do that, you need a consolidated view of customer preferences and expectations across all channels – Web, social media, mobile, direct mail, point of sale, etc. Marketers can use this information to create and anticipate consistent, coordinated customer experiences that will move customers along in the buying cycle. The deeper your insight into customer behavior and preferences, the more likely you are to engage them in lucrative interactions.
Two other practical limitations can be seen in the case of digital marketing. One,digital marketing is useful for specific categories of products,meaning only consumer goods can be propagated through digital channels.Industrial goods and pharmaceutical products can not be marketed through digital channels. Secondly, digital marketing disseminates only the information to the prospects most of whom do not have the purchasing authority/power. And hence the reflection of digital marketing into real sales volume is skeptical.[citation needed]
I highly recommend iPhones for the ability to block apps, internet, etc. The restrictions have a different 4 number passcode so only you can have access to those features. You can block their ability to add or delete apps. We also have a rule that all devices are turned in at bedtime and charge on my nightstand until morning. If I bought the phone and pay the bill, you follow my rules, it belongs to me and I let you borrow it.
Game advertising - In-Game advertising is defined as "inclusion of products or brands within a digital game."[49] The game allows brands or products to place ads within their game, either in a subtle manner or in the form of an advertisement banner. There are many factors that exist in whether brands are successful in their advertising of their brand/product, these being: Type of game, technical platform, 3-D and 4-D technology, game genre, congruity of brand and game, prominence of advertising within the game. Individual factors consist of attitudes towards placement advertisements, game involvement, product involvement, flow or entertainment. The attitude towards the advertising also takes into account not only the message shown but also the attitude towards the game. Dependent of how enjoyable the game is will determine how the brand is perceived, meaning if the game isn't very enjoyable the consumer may subconsciously have a negative attitude towards the brand/product being advertised. In terms of Integrated Marketing Communication "integration of advertising in digital games into the general advertising, communication, and marketing strategy of the firm"[49] is an important as it results in a more clarity about the brand/product and creates a larger overall effect.
The role of a social media manager is easy to infer from the title, but which social networks they manage for the company depends on the industry. Above all, social media managers establish a posting schedule for the company's written and visual content. This employee might also work with the content marketing specialist to develop a strategy for which content to post on which social network. 

One of the most popular social networks with the younger crowd right now is Snapchat. With Snapchat, you can capture life's best moments as they happen. There are a ton of fun effects and even special promo lenses to use to spruce up your selfie or photo as well. And with a lot of brands on the network, there's unique content that you won't find elsewhere, and it's even a place to get your news, believe it or not. Everything you post on Snapchat stays for 24 hours before it's deleted, but remember that people can screenshot what you post, so be mindful!
This is the behemoth of social networks, and pretty much everyone and their mother (literally) uses it. With the official Facebook app, you'll gain access to your News Feed, where you can view the updates of friends and family, as well as any Pages and Groups you follow. Links open up in the built-in browser, and you can make any edits to your profile and pages on-the-go from here. It's the quintessential app, though it may drain your battery throughout the day (you've been warned).
This is the behemoth of social networks, and pretty much everyone and their mother (literally) uses it. With the official Facebook app, you'll gain access to your News Feed, where you can view the updates of friends and family, as well as any Pages and Groups you follow. Links open up in the built-in browser, and you can make any edits to your profile and pages on-the-go from here. It's the quintessential app, though it may drain your battery throughout the day (you've been warned).
Beginning in the late 1990s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, and physicists such as Duncan J. Watts, Albert-László Barabási, Peter Bearman, Nicholas A. Christakis, James H. Fowler, and others, developing and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks.

Thanks for this info! My 14 year old step-daughter just got a new iPhone, so I was setting up the restricted websites. I also wanted to put out there that a website called wattpad.com is a bad place for kids to go, along with creepypasta.com. In the past we've found my daughter reading extremely hard core pornographic "fanfiction" stories. S&M stuff, I mean really hard core nastiness. And if you see anything with "X Reader", it's not a great sign. Also, I wanted to mention that Undertale could lead to some nasty stuff. It seems to be a fave story/game among the middle schoolers in our community. If anyone else knows of any random off the beaten path sites, please post them here!
Those engaging with your company online via mobile devices need to have the same positive experience as they would on desktop. This means implementing a mobile-friendly or responsive website design to make browsing user-friendly for those on mobile devices. It might also mean reducing the length of your lead generation forms to create a hassle-free experience for people downloading your content on-the-go. As for your social media images, it's important to always have a mobile user in mind when creating them as image dimensions are smaller on mobile devices, meaning text can be cut-off.
Display advertising - As the term infers, Online Display Advertisement deals with showcasing promotional messages or ideas to the consumer on the internet. This includes a wide range of advertisements like advertising blogs, networks, interstitial ads, contextual data, ads on the search engines, classified or dynamic advertisement etc. The method can target specific audience tuning in from different types of locals to view a particular advertisement, the variations can be found as the most productive element of this method.
This social networking site enables you to post short text messages (called tweets), containing a limited number of characters (up to 140), to convey your message to the world. With the growing craze for online shopping, Twitter also makes it possible to promote your businesses and even shop directly through tweets. Learn how to create the perfect Twitter profile. 

My son switched from txt msg to Kik about a month ago and it really threw me for a loop. I was used to randomly checking his texts, but took me a couple of weeks to realize his text inbox was empty because he had switched to a new app. He texts constantly, usually to girls, and his content is too provocative and sometimes completely crosses the line. As much as we redirect him and counsel him and consequence him on this, he seems to keep doing whatever he can get away with. Now, my husband and I are thinking of uninstalling all of his apps except ones for productivity, like calendar and checklists. we may still allow the camera, but that seems harmless as long as there's no app to post the actual pics. I'm wondering if this move will be so extreme that it starts a tug of war. Any thoughts? 

Why Facebook decided to remove access to your messages from the official app is a mystery that we're all still trying to solve. But still, if you chat with your Facebook friend often, then Messenger is a must-have. The app lets you send messages to your friends or create group chats, and it's also a way to reach out to businesses directly. Messenger also includes access to stickers, GIFs, voice and video calls, and you can even pay people directly through Messenger.
On a fall night in 2003, Harvard undergrad and computer programming genius Mark Zuckerberg sits down at his computer and heatedly begins working on a new idea. In a fury of blogging and programming, what begins in his dorm room soon becomes a global social network and a revolution in communication. A mere six years and 500 million friends later, Mark Zuckerberg is the youngest billionaire in history... but for this entrepreneur, success leads to both personal and legal complications. Written by Columbia Pictures
Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing,[6] e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones.[7] In essence, this extension to non-Internet channels helps to differentiate digital marketing from online marketing, another catch-all term for the marketing methods mentioned above, which strictly occur online.

Any plans to update your Common Sense lessons to include these more up-to-date apps and social media sites? I find that I want to use your videos to teach digital citizenship to my high school students, but the references and sites discussed are becoming rapidly outdated. MySpace has long been abandoned and the way people use Facebook has radically changed in the past few years - I'm having trouble locating materials that hold real world relevance for my students that don't come across as out-of-touch or condescending.


Digital marketing became more sophisticated in the 2000s and the 2010s, when[13][14] the proliferation of devices' capable of accessing digital media led to sudden growth.[15] Statistics produced in 2012 and 2013 showed that digital marketing was still growing.[16][17] With the development of social media in the 2000s, such as LinkedIn, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter, consumers became highly dependent on digital electronics in daily lives. Therefore, they expected a seamless user experience across different channels for searching product's information. The change of customer behavior improved the diversification of marketing technology.[18]
You don't need to know the ins and outs of all the apps, sites, and terms that are "hot" right now (and frankly, if you did, they wouldn't be trendy anymore). But knowing the basics -- what they are, why they're popular, and what problems can crop up when they're not used responsibly -- can make the difference between a positive and a negative experience for your kid.
Thanks for the great list and info Kelly! My 14 year old desperately wants to be using some of these apps. We have resisted so far, but realize that she really is an anomaly at this point so are now considering letting her at least use Instagram (as long as we come up with agreements about privacy settings etc). I've read that teens shouldn't use their real name/photo on their profile as it's publically searchable (despite the privacy settings). I see almost all her peers using their real name and photo, and they say it's so they are searchable to friends. Makes sense, but seems unsafe - any tips on this?
The Nielsen Global Connected Commerce Survey conducted interviews in 26 countries to observe how consumers are using the Internet to make shopping decisions in stores and online. Online shoppers are increasingly looking to purchase internationally, with over 50% in the study who purchased online in the last six months stating they bought from an overseas retailer.[23]
Shifting the focus to the time span, we may need to measure some "Interim Metrics", which give us some insight during the journey itself, as well as we need to measure some "Final Metrics" at the end of the journey to inform use if the overall initiative was successful or not. As an example, most of social media metrics and indicators such as likes, shares and engagement comments may be classified as interim metrics while the final increase/decrease in sales volume is clearly from the final category.
A Coursera Specialization is a series of courses that helps you master a skill. To begin, enroll in the Specialization directly, or review its courses and choose the one you'd like to start with. When you subscribe to a course that is part of a Specialization, you’re automatically subscribed to the full Specialization. It’s okay to complete just one course — you can pause your learning or end your subscription at any time. Visit your learner dashboard to track your course enrollments and your progress.
Master strategic marketing concepts and tools to address brand communication in a digital world. This Specialization explores several aspects of the new digital marketing environment, including topics such as digital marketing analytics, search engine optimization, social media marketing, and 3D Printing. When you complete the Digital Marketing Specialization you will have a richer understanding of the foundations of the new digital marketing landscape and acquire a new set of stories, concepts, and tools to help you digitally create, distribute, promote and price products and services. In 2016, this was one of the top 10 specializations in terms of enrollments. INC Magazine rated the first course, Marketing in a Digital World, as one of The 10 Hottest Online Classes for Professionals in 2015. In addition, this course was also ranked in the top five courses across multiple MOOC providers. Finally, the Digital Marketing Certificate was the top coveted certificate on Coursera in 2015. Get more updates on the specialization at http://digitalmarketingprofs.com/ This Specialization is part of the University of Illinois Masters of Business Administration degree program, the iMBA. Learn more about the admission into the program here.
Social networking is the use of internet-based social media programs to make connections with friends, family, classmates, customers and clients. Social networking can occur for social purposes, business purposes or both through sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Classmates.com and Yelp. Social networking is also a significant target area for marketers seeking to engage users.
Now imagine you had that brochure on your website instead. You can measure exactly how many people viewed the page where it's hosted, and you can collect the contact details of those who download it by using forms. Not only can you measure how many people are engaging with your content, but you're also generating qualified leads when people download it. 

Randomly distributed networks: Exponential random graph models of social networks became state-of-the-art methods of social network analysis in the 1980s. This framework has the capacity to represent social-structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks, including general degree-based structural effects commonly observed in many human social networks as well as reciprocity and transitivity, and at the node-level, homophily and attribute-based activity and popularity effects, as derived from explicit hypotheses about dependencies among network ties. Parameters are given in terms of the prevalence of small subgraph configurations in the network and can be interpreted as describing the combinations of local social processes from which a given network emerges. These probability models for networks on a given set of actors allow generalization beyond the restrictive dyadic independence assumption of micro-networks, allowing models to be built from theoretical structural foundations of social behavior.[42] 

There are a number of ways brands can use digital marketing to benefit their marketing efforts. The use of digital marketing in the digital era not only allows for brands to market their products and services, but also allows for online customer support through 24/7 services to make customers feel supported and valued. The use of social media interaction allows brands to receive both positive and negative feedback from their customers as well as determining what media platforms work well for them. As such, digital marketing has become an increased advantage for brands and businesses. It is now common for consumers to post feedback online through social media sources, blogs and websites on their experience with a product or brand.[25] It has become increasingly popular for businesses to use and encourage these conversations through their social media channels to have direct contact with the customers and manage the feedback they receive appropriately.
Social Media Marketing - The term 'Digital Marketing' has a number of marketing facets as it supports different channels used in and among these, comes the Social Media. When we use social media channels ( Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, Google+, etc.) to market a product or service, the strategy is called Social Media Marketing. It is a procedure wherein strategies are made and executed to draw in traffic for a website or to gain attention of buyers over the web using different social media platforms.
Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]
IFTTT stands for If This Then That. It's a tool that actually lets you build your very own automated actions, called "recipes," so that you don't have to do them yourself. For example, if you want all of your Instagram photos automatically saved to a public folder of your Dropbox account, you can do that by building a recipe with IFTTT so you never have do it manually.
My daughter went on Omegle after seeing it used on a YouTube video - the video showed the chat was safe- a tween talking to two young kids. My daughter's experience was much worse. Despite the numerous warnings on the initial page -she went right in and started to find people to chat with. She smartly had her camera off -but found no one would chat with her. So she turned it on - showing only below her neck. Sure enough - someone started chatting to her. He (using typing only) asked her to stand up and turn around - she did that - and he promptly threatened her -" I have taken a photo of your butt (she was fully clothed) and your face (not sure if that was possible) and I will put them onto social media and will embarrass you if you don't do what I say..." she promptly shut it down and came down in tears. We alerted the local police and reported the incident -which they fully supported. This is NOT a site for anyone but ADULTS. Despite many warnings and much education about this type of site - my daughter ignored everything for the chance of chatting and feeling that 'she belonged and was popular'. Such a hard thing to parent around.
It's a myth that Snapchats go away forever. Data is data: Whenever an image is sent, it never truly goes away. (For example, the person on the receiving end can take a screenshot of the image before it disappears.) Snapchats can even be recovered. After a major hack in December 2013 and a settlement with the FTC, Snapchat has clarified its privacy policy, but teens should stay wary.
Digital marketing is defined by the use of numerous digital tactics and channels to connect with customers where they spend much of their time: online. From the website itself to a business's online branding assets -- digital advertising, email marketing, online brochures, and beyond -- there's a spectrum of tactics that fall under the umbrella of "digital marketing."
Another useful website is www.candyfist.com Which is built on a php platform. Nothing is creative about just viewing and liking photo's on your phone. I remember when Myspace had all the criteria of uploading photo's, music, blogging, chatting with friends, customizing your profile the way you wanted which showed teens how to code. This was actually useful and unique for individual members.

If you're focusing on inbound techniques like SEO, social media, and content creation for a preexisting website, the good news is you don't need very much budget at all. With inbound marketing, the main focus is on creating high quality content that your audience will want to consume, which unless you're planning to outsource the work, the only investment you'll need is your time.
Unlike most offline marketing efforts, digital marketing allows marketers to see accurate results in real time. If you've ever put an advert in a newspaper, you'll know how difficult it is to estimate how many people actually flipped to that page and paid attention to your ad. There's no surefire way to know if that ad was responsible for any sales at all.
A key objective is engaging digital marketing customers and allowing them to interact with the brand through servicing and delivery of digital media. Information is easy to access at a fast rate through the use of digital communications. Users with access to the Internet can use many digital mediums, such as Facebook, YouTube, Forums, and Email etc. Through Digital communications it creates a Multi-communication channel where information can be quickly exchanged around the world by anyone without any regard to whom they are.[28] Social segregation plays no part through social mediums due to lack of face to face communication and information being wide spread instead to a selective audience. This interactive nature allows consumers create conversation in which the targeted audience is able to ask questions about the brand and get familiar with it which traditional forms of Marketing may not offer.[29]
Great list and please don’t get me wrong here, I am sick to death of Facebook. Is there another alternative TO Facebook? Put simply, NO!!! The other social media sites are devoid of the basic common denominator, Collaboration!! While they MIGHT get you a closed network or a specific audience, it doesn’t cater for interaction with all of the platform. What we really need is somewhere that has a home page with your posts that is broadcast to ALL other users or chosen crowds. We need a news feed to cast all of the posts for people to interact with. Twitter, Snapchat, Google+ and Instagram etc etc, just don’t cut the mustard as far as this goes. Some of the others mentioned are specific to specific audiences and are nothing like Facebook. That is why all other alternatives fail dismally!! I wish I had the money and development time to produce it, but alas I don’t.
Research studies of formal or informal organization relationships, organizational communication, economics, economic sociology, and other resource transfers. Social networks have also been used to examine how organizations interact with each other, characterizing the many informal connections that link executives together, as well as associations and connections between individual employees at different organizations.[58] Intra-organizational networks have been found to affect organizational commitment,[59] organizational identification,[37] interpersonal citizenship behaviour.[60]
Skype, owned by Microsoft, is one of the most popular communication-based social networking platforms. It allows you to connect with people through voice calls, video calls (using a webcam) and text messaging. You can even conduct group conference calls. And, the best part is that Skype-to-Skype calls are free and can be used to communicate with anyone, located in any part of the world, over the internet. 

Networks rich in structural holes are a form of social capital in that they offer information benefits. The main player in a network that bridges structural holes is able to access information from diverse sources and clusters.[49] For example, in business networks, this is beneficial to an individual's career because he is more likely to hear of job openings and opportunities if his network spans a wide range of contacts in different industries/sectors. This concept is similar to Mark Granovetter's theory of weak ties, which rests on the basis that having a broad range of contacts is most effective for job attainment.

Video advertising - This type of advertising in terms of digital/online means are advertisements that play on online videos e.g. YouTube videos. This type of marketing has seen an increase in popularity over time.[50] Online Video Advertising usually consists of three types: Pre-Roll advertisements which play before the video is watched, Mid-Roll advertisements which play during the video, or Post-Roll advertisements which play after the video is watched.[51] Post-roll advertisements were shown to have better brand recognition in relation to the other types, where-as "ad-context congruity/incongruity plays an important role in reinforcing ad memorability".[50] Due to selective attention from viewers, there is the likelihood that the message may not be received.[52] The main advantage of video advertising is that it disrupts the viewing experience of the video and therefore there is a difficulty in attempting to avoid them. How a consumer interacts with online video advertising can come down to three stages: Pre attention, attention, and behavioural decision.[53] These online advertisements give the brand/business options and choices. These consist of length, position, adjacent video content which all directly affect the effectiveness of the produced advertisement time,[50] therefore manipulating these variables will yield different results. Length of the advertisement has shown to affect memorability where-as longer duration resulted in increased brand recognition.[50] This type of advertising, due to its nature of interruption of the viewer, it is likely that the consumer may feel as if their experience is being interrupted or invaded, creating negative perception of the brand.[50] These advertisements are also available to be shared by the viewers, adding to the attractiveness of this platform. Sharing these videos can be equated to the online version of word by mouth marketing, extending number of people reached.[54] Sharing videos creates six different outcomes: these being "pleasure, affection, inclusion, escape, relaxation, and control".[50] As well, videos that have entertainment value are more likely to be shared, yet pleasure is the strongest motivator to pass videos on. Creating a ‘viral’ trend from mass amount of a brands advertisement can maximize the outcome of an online video advert whether it be positive or a negative outcome.
If your company is business-to-business (B2B), your digital marketing efforts are likely to be centered around online lead generation, with the end goal being for someone to speak to a salesperson. For that reason, the role of your marketing strategy is to attract and convert the highest quality leads for your salespeople via your website and supporting digital channels.
Skype, owned by Microsoft, is one of the most popular communication-based social networking platforms. It allows you to connect with people through voice calls, video calls (using a webcam) and text messaging. You can even conduct group conference calls. And, the best part is that Skype-to-Skype calls are free and can be used to communicate with anyone, located in any part of the world, over the internet.
Good list. For most of these apps there is no good reason to have them. Kind of like being out at 3:00 a.m., nothing good is going to happen. Also note that most of these apps have a private chat feature, including Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, etc. The "meet" apps are scary as well, because they really encourage random stranger contact. Pretty sure nothing will change unless a lot of bad things happen.
By using Internet platforms, businesses can create competitive advantage through various means. To reach the maximum potential of digital marketing, firms use social media as its main tool to create a channel of information. Through this a business can create a system in which they are able to pinpoint behavioral patterns of clients and feedback on their needs.[30] This means of content has shown to have a larger impingement on those who have a long-standing relationship with the firm and with consumers who are relatively active social media users. Relative to this, creating a social media page will further increase relation quality between new consumers and existing consumers as well as consistent brand reinforcement therefore improving brand awareness resulting in a possible rise for consumers up the Brand Awareness Pyramid.[31] Although there may be inconstancy with product images;[32] maintaining a successful social media presence requires a business to be consistent in interactions through creating a two way feed of information; firms consider their content based on the feedback received through this channel, this is a result of the environment being dynamic due to the global nature of the internet.[29] Effective use of digital marketing can result in relatively lowered costs in relation to traditional means of marketing; Lowered external service costs, advertising costs, promotion costs, processing costs, interface design costs and control costs.[32]
In general, meso-level theories begin with a population size that falls between the micro- and macro-levels. However, meso-level may also refer to analyses that are specifically designed to reveal connections between micro- and macro-levels. Meso-level networks are low density and may exhibit causal processes distinct from interpersonal micro-level networks.[39]

The marketing automation coordinator helps choose and manage the software that allows the whole marketing team to understand their customers' behavior and measure the growth of their business. Because many of the marketing operations described above might be executed separately from one another, it's important for there to be someone who can group these digital activities into individual campaigns and track each campaign's performance.


Why Facebook decided to remove access to your messages from the official app is a mystery that we're all still trying to solve. But still, if you chat with your Facebook friend often, then Messenger is a must-have. The app lets you send messages to your friends or create group chats, and it's also a way to reach out to businesses directly. Messenger also includes access to stickers, GIFs, voice and video calls, and you can even pay people directly through Messenger.
Digital marketing activity is still growing across the world according to the headline global marketing index. A study published in September 2018, found that global outlays on digital marketing tactics are approaching $100 billion.[40] Digital media continues to rapidly grow; while the marketing budgets are expanding, traditional media is declining (World Economics, 2015).[41] Digital media helps brands reach consumers to engage with their product or service in a personalised way. Five areas, which are outlined as current industry practices that are often ineffective are prioritizing clicks, balancing search and display, understanding mobiles, targeting, viewability, brand safety and invalid traffic, and cross-platform measurement (Whiteside, 2016).[42] Why these practices are ineffective and some ways around making these aspects effective are discussed surrounding the following points.
As a clinical psychologist and speaker on raising kids in the Instant Gratification Generation, I found this to be extremely helpful and to the point. I have shared it with many parents. New apps are developed all the time so sharing this information is the best way for parents to know what is out there. In our area the app causing an rash of cyberbullying and threats to schools is the "anonymous" app called Burnbook, which is based on the Burn Book from the movie Mean Girls. 

I completely agree with you, Cyber Safety Lady. I think the Common Sense Media review of Kik needs to be updated. The sub-apps of Kik (available via a side swipe) offer their own versions of YouTube, Internet Browser, Image searching and more. There are parents out there that may think that turning off Safari will prohibit their child from accessing YouTube or other inappropriate content; however, Kik is a backdoor for your children to access these very sites. The problem with the CSM review of Kik is that it falls into the trap of categorizing the app as a "texting" app, but it is much, much more! Please re-evaluate the product and see if you agree that your review needs to be updated. Thank you Cyber Safety Lady! (I think I originally learned of the holes in Kik from you!)
First of all, thanks for sharing this list. It’s really useful, but it would be great to supplement it with some kind of statistics regarding the audience who is using each of these social networks. This statistics could be valuable for different kind of marketers, bloggers or business owners because with such statistics it would be possible to plan a strategy for business in different niches, like e-commerce, paperhelp online, any kind of services, or use it for the purpose of self-promotions for bloggers/website owners.
I'm sure there is plenty of self-loathing and porn on Tumblr. However, my daughter has been using it for years, primarily to participate in the fan communities of various TV shows, movies, podcasts, and video games that interest her. Kids in these communities demonstrate a lot of creativity as they role play, share artwork, and mash-up different stories. When drama arises in those communities, she is smart enough to stay away. She has also learned a lot about politics and gender roles, social justice issues and respect for diversity. I suppose we are fortunate that she has a good head on her shoulders and wants to share her world with us rather than hide it.
The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.
What a horrible thing to happen. It is so important that we don't rush to allow our kids to use social media too early. They need to be mature enough to be able to spot predators, and old enough to tell parents if it happens. It's also so important that parents educate themselves on what these apps, do. What the content is inside the apps ,does it have privacy settings that actually block and protect your child. Sadly so many parents don't seek out education around technology or cyber safety. Most parents think it won't happen to their child, they also believe they know enough. I teach I.T teachers about cyber safety. Cyber Safety education is a very specialised area, no matter how much experience you have with computers and the internet, parents need to learn HOW their kids are using these things. Don't think you know enough...find out for sure! If you have the opportunity to attend a technology or cyber safety talk please go, and take your friends. Knowledge is power.

Studies of language and linguistics, particularly evolutionary linguistics, focus on the development of linguistic forms and transfer of changes, sounds or words, from one language system to another through networks of social interaction. Social networks are also important in language shift, as groups of people add and/or abandon languages to their repertoire.
Good list. For most of these apps there is no good reason to have them. Kind of like being out at 3:00 a.m., nothing good is going to happen. Also note that most of these apps have a private chat feature, including Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, etc. The "meet" apps are scary as well, because they really encourage random stranger contact. Pretty sure nothing will change unless a lot of bad things happen.
Any plans to update your Common Sense lessons to include these more up-to-date apps and social media sites? I find that I want to use your videos to teach digital citizenship to my high school students, but the references and sites discussed are becoming rapidly outdated. MySpace has long been abandoned and the way people use Facebook has radically changed in the past few years - I'm having trouble locating materials that hold real world relevance for my students that don't come across as out-of-touch or condescending.
Why Facebook decided to remove access to your messages from the official app is a mystery that we're all still trying to solve. But still, if you chat with your Facebook friend often, then Messenger is a must-have. The app lets you send messages to your friends or create group chats, and it's also a way to reach out to businesses directly. Messenger also includes access to stickers, GIFs, voice and video calls, and you can even pay people directly through Messenger.
This is a local search- and discovery-based social media platform that enables you to find the ideal places (based on your location) to go to with friends and loved ones. It also gives appropriate search results for the best food outlets, night entertainment places and more in your area. The social networking feature is now available in a separate app named Swarm.
Thanks for the great list and info Kelly! My 14 year old desperately wants to be using some of these apps. We have resisted so far, but realize that she really is an anomaly at this point so are now considering letting her at least use Instagram (as long as we come up with agreements about privacy settings etc). I've read that teens shouldn't use their real name/photo on their profile as it's publically searchable (despite the privacy settings). I see almost all her peers using their real name and photo, and they say it's so they are searchable to friends. Makes sense, but seems unsafe - any tips on this?

It's a myth that Snapchats go away forever. Data is data: Whenever an image is sent, it never truly goes away. (For example, the person on the receiving end can take a screenshot of the image before it disappears.) Snapchats can even be recovered. After a major hack in December 2013 and a settlement with the FTC, Snapchat has clarified its privacy policy, but teens should stay wary.


How are you transforming mass online marketing to one-to-one interaction and engagement in your online marketing plans? How do you become a source of valued content for your customer? Always focus on the customer care. Be consultative in your online conversation. Seek to ask and go deeper into a prospect's business challenge, and be very honest in your marketing campaigns to ensure you are progressively qualifying the prospect.
Unlike most offline marketing efforts, digital marketing allows marketers to see accurate results in real time. If you've ever put an advert in a newspaper, you'll know how difficult it is to estimate how many people actually flipped to that page and paid attention to your ad. There's no surefire way to know if that ad was responsible for any sales at all.
Digital media is so pervasive that consumers have access to information any time and any place they want it. Gone are the days when the messages people got about your products or services came from you and consisted of only what you wanted them to know. Digital media is an ever-growing source of entertainment, news, shopping and social interaction, and consumers are now exposed not just to what your company says about your brand, but what the media, friends, relatives, peers, etc., are saying as well. And they are more likely to believe them than you. People want brands they can trust, companies that know them, communications that are personalized and relevant, and offers tailored to their needs and preferences.
To cease opportunity, the firm should summarize their current customers' personas and purchase journey from this they are able to deduce their digital marketing capability. This means they need to form a clear picture of where they are currently and how many resources they can allocate for their digital marketing strategy i.e. labour, time etc. By summarizing the purchase journey, they can also recognise gaps and growth for future marketing opportunities that will either meet objectives or propose new objectives and increase profit.
Communication Studies are often considered a part of both the social sciences and the humanities, drawing heavily on fields such as sociology, psychology, anthropology, information science, biology, political science, and economics as well as rhetoric, literary studies, and semiotics. Many communication concepts describe the transfer of information from one source to another, and can thus be conceived of in terms of a network.
The marketing automation coordinator helps choose and manage the software that allows the whole marketing team to understand their customers' behavior and measure the growth of their business. Because many of the marketing operations described above might be executed separately from one another, it's important for there to be someone who can group these digital activities into individual campaigns and track each campaign's performance.
Kids might make poor decisions to gain popularity. Because it's live video, kids can do or say anything and can respond to requests from viewers -- in real time. Though there seems to be moderation around iffy content (kids complain about having accounts suspended "for nothing"), there's plenty of swearing and occasional sharing of personal information with anonymous viewers.
So yes we have all heard stories about abuse and all that from these "totally awful unsafe sites", but most of the time it only happens because the child isn't seeing signs that someone could be a potential stalker, ect. I live in America and adults educated me about social media and staying away from certain things. Lots of people say that social media destroys your brain and all that, but people, it's the 21st century! This century is about technological advances and bettering people's lives with new inventions, don't keep your child away from that! Social media helps you feel included and I think it's more positive than negative on your whole person. There's always going to be someone out there who wishes harm on people like me, and they try to reel you in. But keeping your child away from social media only makes them more gullible, and more likely to get in a bad situation
The field of sociology focuses almost entirely on networks of outcomes of social interactions. More narrowly, economic sociology considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets". Sociologists, such as Mark Granovetter, have developed core principles about the interactions of social structure, information, ability to punish or reward, and trust that frequently recur in their analyses of political, economic and other institutions. Granovetter examines how social structures and social networks can affect economic outcomes like hiring, price, productivity and innovation and describes sociologists' contributions to analyzing the impact of social structure and networks on the economy.[51]
Hi JHart! As a fellow teen I'm here to advocte and encourage to usage of social media for your 14 year old daughter. I personally had a very monitored Facebook since I was 10 (mainly since I lived overseas to contact other family members). When I was 13, I was introduced to Instagram. Since then, I've used it to update my friends on my whereabouts (since I'm still constantly traveling) and keep up to date on their whereabouts. If you are concerned about your teen's safety on Instagram, here are some tips I've learned: 1) Only use your first name as your "real name". Instagram doesn't require you to put both names. 2) Careful what you put in the bio (it's always going to be public). I have some attributes about me (World traveller. Foodie. Dog Lover) and a cute quote and some emojis on mine. Nothing too specific about me. 3) My account is set on private. 4) I do not share Instagram photos with the location turned on unless I know I will not be going back to that place for a while (ex. you're day at disneyworld or something). 5) My Instagram profile picture uses a cheesy, but cute filter. The profile picture doesn't matter too much since people cannot click and make it bigger like they can in say Kik. 6) Your username should not be your full name. Mine is my first name and then something else. I personally do not really see any other difficulties that could go along with the app as seeing it's a photo uploading and viewing media. Instagram has made lots of effort in taking out spam accounts and there is little to inappropriate material (atleast I haven't seen much- especially lately, in my 2 years of using the app). Anyways, I hope I helped!
In the late 1890s, both Émile Durkheim and Ferdinand Tönnies foreshadowed the idea of social networks in their theories and research of social groups. Tönnies argued that social groups can exist as personal and direct social ties that either link individuals who share values and belief (Gemeinschaft, German, commonly translated as "community") or impersonal, formal, and instrumental social links (Gesellschaft, German, commonly translated as "society").[7] Durkheim gave a non-individualistic explanation of social facts, arguing that social phenomena arise when interacting individuals constitute a reality that can no longer be accounted for in terms of the properties of individual actors.[8] Georg Simmel, writing at the turn of the twentieth century, pointed to the nature of networks and the effect of network size on interaction and examined the likelihood of interaction in loosely knit networks rather than groups.[9] 

If your company is business-to-business (B2B), your digital marketing efforts are likely to be centered around online lead generation, with the end goal being for someone to speak to a salesperson. For that reason, the role of your marketing strategy is to attract and convert the highest quality leads for your salespeople via your website and supporting digital channels.

Social Media Marketing - The term 'Digital Marketing' has a number of marketing facets as it supports different channels used in and among these, comes the Social Media. When we use social media channels ( Facebook, Twitter, Pinterest, Instagram, Google+, etc.) to market a product or service, the strategy is called Social Media Marketing. It is a procedure wherein strategies are made and executed to draw in traffic for a website or to gain attention of buyers over the web using different social media platforms.


Every time you leave your account active on your computer those little Facebook linkis that are now at the bottom of most of the pages you go to report your browsing history back to Facebook. Who the hell do they think they are? I have never created a Facebook account yet through accounts of Friends I see my full name identified. Yes, I agree whole heatedly we need an alternative other then Facebook.


In J.A. Barnes' day, a "community" referred to a specific geographic location and studies of community ties had to do with who talked, associated, traded, and attended church with whom. Today, however, there are extended "online" communities developed through telecommunications devices and social network services. Such devices and services require extensive and ongoing maintenance and analysis, often using network science methods. Community development studies, today, also make extensive use of such methods.
I really don't like Tumblr. Its built on angry and misguided teens. Our kid is fun loving, cheerful, athletic, smart and kind to everyone. He's still a teen. But those kids on Tumblr are the dark side - blogging about their cutting issues, their gay experience with another kid last night, how heroin should be legalized, how the world should turn trans, how its "not just a phase". Good god please don't pollute my kids head. While porn might not be on every page, its on every other page, and when it isn't porn, there's still bad language, sexual remarks and inappropriate content
That new app Down to Lunch is a new bad one its for sex trafficking it texts you and tell you your friends have invited you when they actually have no idea what the app even is. When you download it and signup it asks you for your address, and all your personal info. I know I got a text coming out of Atlanta Georgia that told me to sign up. So they already have our numbers! So all you parents warn your kids about this app!!
Social networking is the use of internet-based social media programs to make connections with friends, family, classmates, customers and clients. Social networking can occur for social purposes, business purposes or both through sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Classmates.com and Yelp. Social networking is also a significant target area for marketers seeking to engage users.
On the other hand, marketers who employ digital inbound tactics use online content to attract their target customers onto their websites by providing assets that are helpful to them. One of the simplest yet most powerful inbound digital marketing assets is a blog, which allows your website to capitalize on the terms which your ideal customers are searching for.
This journal has partnered with Heliyon, an open access journal from Elsevier publishing quality peer reviewed research across all disciplines. Heliyon’s team of experts provides editorial excellence, fast publication, and high visibility for your paper. Authors can quickly and easily transfer their research from a Partner Journal to Heliyon without the need to edit, reformat or resubmit.
So yes we have all heard stories about abuse and all that from these "totally awful unsafe sites", but most of the time it only happens because the child isn't seeing signs that someone could be a potential stalker, ect. I live in America and adults educated me about social media and staying away from certain things. Lots of people say that social media destroys your brain and all that, but people, it's the 21st century! This century is about technological advances and bettering people's lives with new inventions, don't keep your child away from that! Social media helps you feel included and I think it's more positive than negative on your whole person. There's always going to be someone out there who wishes harm on people like me, and they try to reel you in. But keeping your child away from social media only makes them more gullible, and more likely to get in a bad situation
Why Facebook decided to remove access to your messages from the official app is a mystery that we're all still trying to solve. But still, if you chat with your Facebook friend often, then Messenger is a must-have. The app lets you send messages to your friends or create group chats, and it's also a way to reach out to businesses directly. Messenger also includes access to stickers, GIFs, voice and video calls, and you can even pay people directly through Messenger.
All the cruel things were possible before digital media when social media was just signs on trees and walls. I believe digital media allows supervising adults to find out about potential threats and current wrongdoings a lot better than when they used to rely on some random shy kids by asking "you can tell me, what's going on with him/her?"--because that kid would never tell. It is easy to download an app to monitor kids and tell kids what to do and not do. But it is very hard to teach by examples, because that means we have to act as we say at all times without using get-out-of-jail-free card, "this is different" excuses. I personally believe showing kids the examples of self-disciplined and forgiving adults is more important than telling them about what more things they should not do.
Digital marketing's development since the 1990s and 2000s has changed the way brands and businesses use technology for marketing.[2] As digital platforms are increasingly incorporated into marketing plans and everyday life,[3] and as people use digital devices instead of visiting physical shops,[4][5] digital marketing campaigns are becoming more prevalent and efficient.

A Cohesive Marketing Technology Stack: No one software tool can save the day. Marketing is not about the creative aspect alone anymore. Marketing technology infrastructure needs to be designed and integrated correctly. One social media tool alone will not save the day, nor will one CRM tool be the solution to a challenge anymore. Consider your full stack and how it can work together.
Display advertising - As the term infers, Online Display Advertisement deals with showcasing promotional messages or ideas to the consumer on the internet. This includes a wide range of advertisements like advertising blogs, networks, interstitial ads, contextual data, ads on the search engines, classified or dynamic advertisement etc. The method can target specific audience tuning in from different types of locals to view a particular advertisement, the variations can be found as the most productive element of this method.

Influencer marketing: Important nodes are identified within related communities, known as influencers. This is becoming an important concept in digital targeting. It is possible to reach influencers via paid advertising, such as Facebook Advertising or Google Adwords campaigns, or through sophisticated sCRM (social customer relationship management) software, such as SAP C4C, Microsoft Dynamics, Sage CRM and Salesforce CRM. Many universities now focus, at Masters level, on engagement strategies for influencers.
Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing,[6] e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones.[7] In essence, this extension to non-Internet channels helps to differentiate digital marketing from online marketing, another catch-all term for the marketing methods mentioned above, which strictly occur online.
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