As digital marketing continues to grow and develop, brands take great advantage of using technology and the Internet as a successful way to communicate with its clients and allows them to increase the reach of who they can interact with and how they go about doing so,.[2] There are however disadvantages that are not commonly looked into due to how much a business relies on it. It is important for marketers to take into consideration both advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing when considering their marketing strategy and business goals.
Great list and please don’t get me wrong here, I am sick to death of Facebook. Is there another alternative TO Facebook? Put simply, NO!!! The other social media sites are devoid of the basic common denominator, Collaboration!! While they MIGHT get you a closed network or a specific audience, it doesn’t cater for interaction with all of the platform. What we really need is somewhere that has a home page with your posts that is broadcast to ALL other users or chosen crowds. We need a news feed to cast all of the posts for people to interact with. Twitter, Snapchat, Google+ and Instagram etc etc, just don’t cut the mustard as far as this goes. Some of the others mentioned are specific to specific audiences and are nothing like Facebook. That is why all other alternatives fail dismally!! I wish I had the money and development time to produce it, but alas I don’t. 

Who would have thought this was the history of Facebook? well - I'm sure it's heavily dramatized. The director did an amazing job here as did the main cast. The music by Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross set the tone so well (and is great music to work out to, incidentally). As I'm sure facebook will be around for a long time, so too will the legacy of this movie.
The role of a social media manager is easy to infer from the title, but which social networks they manage for the company depends on the industry. Above all, social media managers establish a posting schedule for the company's written and visual content. This employee might also work with the content marketing specialist to develop a strategy for which content to post on which social network.
In J.A. Barnes' day, a "community" referred to a specific geographic location and studies of community ties had to do with who talked, associated, traded, and attended church with whom. Today, however, there are extended "online" communities developed through telecommunications devices and social network services. Such devices and services require extensive and ongoing maintenance and analysis, often using network science methods. Community development studies, today, also make extensive use of such methods.

This course builds on the theory and foundations of marketing analytics and focuses on practical application by demystifying the use of data in marketing and helping you realize the power of visualizing data with artful use of numbers found in the digital space. This course is part of the iMBA offered by the University of Illinois, a flexible, fully-accredited online MBA at an incredibly competitive price. For more information, please see the Resource page in this course and onlinemba.illinois.edu.
Thank you for your post, and I am very sorry for what happened to your child. You correctly point out that no amount of monitoring, including using software, can cover all the bases. There are just too many things out there and too many creeps willing to take advantage. I'm a "computer guy" with all kinds of filters, etc. on, but my daughter was given a thumb drive with executable VPN software to beat OPENDNS and my firewall settings. I only caught it by happenstance. So ignore any "bad parent" comments; those people just don't know.
Thanks Mike for your comment. I don’t trust Facebook either. There’s been many times where I have seen ads come up on FB of subjects that I’ve been talking about offline. Its happened on more than one occasion which is a bit scary if you ask me. Although I do think FB has had its best days and will gradually fall in user numbers as new and innovative platforms come to market over the next 5 years.
While working at a Fortune 100 company for nine years before moving to lead my current team, I became fascinated by customer behavior. What kinds of digital offerings most deeply engage customers in their digital lives? I started by looking at some case studies of the products, services, communications and experiences that had been embraced and adopted by customers during the first two decades of the internet. Over a period of seven years working on inbound marketing campaigns, what I found was a recurring pattern of three behaviors that drove the adoption of new digital experiences, which I call the three core behaviors of a network:
The Nielsen Global Connected Commerce Survey conducted interviews in 26 countries to observe how consumers are using the Internet to make shopping decisions in stores and online. Online shoppers are increasingly looking to purchase internationally, with over 50% in the study who purchased online in the last six months stating they bought from an overseas retailer.[23]
Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]
My son switched from txt msg to Kik about a month ago and it really threw me for a loop. I was used to randomly checking his texts, but took me a couple of weeks to realize his text inbox was empty because he had switched to a new app. He texts constantly, usually to girls, and his content is too provocative and sometimes completely crosses the line. As much as we redirect him and counsel him and consequence him on this, he seems to keep doing whatever he can get away with. Now, my husband and I are thinking of uninstalling all of his apps except ones for productivity, like calendar and checklists. we may still allow the camera, but that seems harmless as long as there's no app to post the actual pics. I'm wondering if this move will be so extreme that it starts a tug of war. Any thoughts?
The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is a world leader in research, teaching and public engagement, distinguished by the breadth of its programs, broad academic excellence, and internationally renowned faculty and alumni. Illinois serves the world by creating knowledge, preparing students for lives of impact, and finding solutions to critical societal needs.
Data-driven advertising: Users generate a lot of data in every step they take on the path of customer journey and Brands can now use that data to activate their known audience with data-driven programmatic media buying. Without exposing customers' privacy, users' Data can be collected from digital channels (e.g.: when customer visits a website, reads an e-mail, or launches and interact with brand's mobile app), brands can also collect data from real world customer interactions, such as brick and mortar stores visits and from CRM and Sales engines datasets. Also known as People-based marketing or addressable media, Data-driven advertising is empowering brands to find their loyal customers in their audience and deliver in real time a much more personal communication, highly relevant to each customers' moment and actions.[37]

Just to give you an opinion from a teens point of view: I am 14 and I use most of these. And most of them can only be dangerous if your child is looking for danger. On Snapchat, you could be harmlessly sending pictures to your friends. In settings it gives you the option to only recieve pictures from people that you add on snapchat. Out of all of these I think instagram is the least dangerous. Like I said before you are only going to find danger if you're looking for it. You can make your page private so people must request to follow you. And you will only see other people's photos whom you follow. Out of all of these I use Twitter and Tumblr the most. On tumblr, you only see content from the blogs you follow so your child should not be following any blogs that are posting Pornographic images anyway and same with twitter. Oovoo is not bery dangerous either because you can only video chat and message people if they add you and you also add them so just make sure your kid isn't adding anyone they don't know. Omegle is really just a TERRIBLE website. Even on the safe chat people are still naked and I don't use that website at all. I LOVE VINE. Many of the 6 second videos are hilarious. I guess I would say the only problem is language. But if someone swears a lot in their vines or does something you don't like then your teen should not follow them. And of course, ***YOU CAN ALWAYS MONITOR THEIR SOCIAL MEDIAS*** Just follow them on twitter, instagram, tumblr, add them on facebook etc. You will be able to see anything they post. Unless they block you. But if they do block you, you could just take all their social media away!! CONGRAYS IF YOU READ THIS UNTIL THE END BC THIS IS SO LONG!
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Thanks Mike for your comment. I don’t trust Facebook either. There’s been many times where I have seen ads come up on FB of subjects that I’ve been talking about offline. Its happened on more than one occasion which is a bit scary if you ask me. Although I do think FB has had its best days and will gradually fall in user numbers as new and innovative platforms come to market over the next 5 years.
Two other practical limitations can be seen in the case of digital marketing. One,digital marketing is useful for specific categories of products,meaning only consumer goods can be propagated through digital channels.Industrial goods and pharmaceutical products can not be marketed through digital channels. Secondly, digital marketing disseminates only the information to the prospects most of whom do not have the purchasing authority/power. And hence the reflection of digital marketing into real sales volume is skeptical.[citation needed]
Collaborative Environment: A collaborative environment can be set up between the organization, the technology service provider, and the digital agencies to optimize effort, resource sharing, reusability and communications.[36] Additionally, organizations are inviting their customers to help them better understand how to service them. This source of data is called User Generated Content. Much of this is acquired via company websites where the organization invites people to share ideas that are then evaluated by other users of the site. The most popular ideas are evaluated and implemented in some form. Using this method of acquiring data and developing new products can foster the organizations relationship with their customer as well as spawn ideas that would otherwise be overlooked. UGC is low-cost advertising as it is directly from the consumers and can save advertising costs for the organisation.
My eldest would chat to her friends every minute of every evening in parallel to life at home if allowed. They use What's App. Do you know how well managed this app is? Her other favourite site is Pinterest. I spoke to her and explained why I don't want her to use Tumblr or Facebook but one of the reasons I gave for not having a Facebook account was that she sees her friends at school every day, it's best for family overseas or people you don't see very often. She accepted that but the same could apply to a What's App. I don't think I would stop her using What's App cos she frequently shares the exchanges she has with friends with me and it's useful for communicating when they're doing homework, but sometimes I feel she is living her life in several alternate realities and sharing every minute of her friends' angst, fangirl hysteria and with some friends their loneliness. At the weekend I often take her iPod Touch off her and she participates fully in family life - still, only just a teenager!
Great works of art define more than just what is on display. They define a culture, a generation. What makes The Great Gatsby such a monumental piece of literature is not just the story or the interesting struggle between characters. It is the fact that The Great Gatsby defines an era in more than one way that makes it such a great novel. The Social Network is the Gatsby of our time. The themes that persist in this movie are so culturally significant and spot-on that it would be cheating yourself to not watch this movie. The Social Network is superbly directed and acted. The story is brilliant. The soundtrack is perfect. In addition to being incredibly well-made and culturally significant, this movie is also wildly engaging and entertaining. The Social Network is the best movie of 2011, if not also one of the greatest triumphs in cinema ever.
Two other practical limitations can be seen in the case of digital marketing. One,digital marketing is useful for specific categories of products,meaning only consumer goods can be propagated through digital channels.Industrial goods and pharmaceutical products can not be marketed through digital channels. Secondly, digital marketing disseminates only the information to the prospects most of whom do not have the purchasing authority/power. And hence the reflection of digital marketing into real sales volume is skeptical.[citation needed]
Complex networks: Most larger social networks display features of social complexity, which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology, with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random (see, complexity science, dynamical system and chaos theory), as do biological, and technological networks. Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure (see stochastic block model), and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile (TSP, see network motif), and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features.[45]
IFTTT stands for If This Then That. It's a tool that actually lets you build your very own automated actions, called "recipes," so that you don't have to do them yourself. For example, if you want all of your Instagram photos automatically saved to a public folder of your Dropbox account, you can do that by building a recipe with IFTTT so you never have do it manually.
IFTTT stands for If This Then That. It's a tool that actually lets you build your very own automated actions, called "recipes," so that you don't have to do them yourself. For example, if you want all of your Instagram photos automatically saved to a public folder of your Dropbox account, you can do that by building a recipe with IFTTT so you never have do it manually.
As digital marketing continues to grow and develop, brands take great advantage of using technology and the Internet as a successful way to communicate with its clients and allows them to increase the reach of who they can interact with and how they go about doing so,.[2] There are however disadvantages that are not commonly looked into due to how much a business relies on it. It is important for marketers to take into consideration both advantages and disadvantages of digital marketing when considering their marketing strategy and business goals. 

Affiliate marketing - Affiliate marketing is perceived to not be considered a safe, reliable and easy means of marketing through online platform. This is due to a lack of reliability in terms of affiliates that can produce the demanded number of new customers. As a result of this risk and bad affiliates it leaves the brand prone to exploitation in terms of claiming commission that isn't honestly acquired. Legal means may offer some protection against this, yet there are limitations in recovering any losses or investment. Despite this, affiliate marketing allows the brand to market towards smaller publishers, and websites with smaller traffic. Brands that choose to use this marketing often should beware of such risks involved and look to associate with affiliates in which rules are laid down between the parties involved to assure and minimize the risk involved.[47]
By the 1970s, a growing number of scholars worked to combine the different tracks and traditions. One group consisted of sociologist Harrison White and his students at the Harvard University Department of Social Relations. Also independently active in the Harvard Social Relations department at the time were Charles Tilly, who focused on networks in political and community sociology and social movements, and Stanley Milgram, who developed the "six degrees of separation" thesis.[25] Mark Granovetter[26] and Barry Wellman[27] are among the former students of White who elaborated and championed the analysis of social networks.[26][28][29][30]
Complex networks: Most larger social networks display features of social complexity, which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology, with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random (see, complexity science, dynamical system and chaos theory), as do biological, and technological networks. Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure (see stochastic block model), and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile (TSP, see network motif), and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features.[45]
Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]

Cross-platform measurement: The number of marketing channels continues to expand, as measurement practices are growing in complexity. A cross-platform view must be used to unify audience measurement and media planning. Market researchers need to understand how the Omni-channel affects consumer's behaviour, although when advertisements are on a consumer's device this does not get measured. Significant aspects to cross-platform measurement involves de-duplication and understanding that you have reached an incremental level with another platform, rather than delivering more impressions against people that have previously been reached (Whiteside, 2016).[42] An example is ‘ESPN and comScore partnered on Project Blueprint discovering the sports broadcaster achieved a 21% increase in unduplicated daily reach thanks to digital advertising’ (Whiteside, 2016).[42] Television and radio industries are the electronic media, which competes with digital and other technological advertising. Yet television advertising is not directly competing with online digital advertising due to being able to cross platform with digital technology. Radio also gains power through cross platforms, in online streaming content. Television and radio continue to persuade and affect the audience, across multiple platforms (Fill, Hughes, & De Franceso, 2013).[45]

First of all, thanks for sharing this list. It’s really useful, but it would be great to supplement it with some kind of statistics regarding the audience who is using each of these social networks. This statistics could be valuable for different kind of marketers, bloggers or business owners because with such statistics it would be possible to plan a strategy for business in different niches, like e-commerce, paper help online, any kind of services, or use it for the purpose of self-promotions for bloggers/website owners.


While working at a Fortune 100 company for nine years before moving to lead my current team, I became fascinated by customer behavior. What kinds of digital offerings most deeply engage customers in their digital lives? I started by looking at some case studies of the products, services, communications and experiences that had been embraced and adopted by customers during the first two decades of the internet. Over a period of seven years working on inbound marketing campaigns, what I found was a recurring pattern of three behaviors that drove the adoption of new digital experiences, which I call the three core behaviors of a network:
Digital media is so pervasive that consumers have access to information any time and any place they want it. Gone are the days when the messages people got about your products or services came from you and consisted of only what you wanted them to know. Digital media is an ever-growing source of entertainment, news, shopping and social interaction, and consumers are now exposed not just to what your company says about your brand, but what the media, friends, relatives, peers, etc., are saying as well. And they are more likely to believe them than you. People want brands they can trust, companies that know them, communications that are personalized and relevant, and offers tailored to their needs and preferences.
Content marketing specialists are the digital content creators. They frequently keep track of the company's blogging calendar, and come up with a content strategy that includes video as well. These professionals often work with people in other departments to ensure the products and campaigns the business launches are supported with promotional content on each digital channel.
First of all, thanks for sharing this list. It’s really useful, but it would be great to supplement it with some kind of statistics regarding the audience who is using each of these social networks. This statistics could be valuable for different kind of marketers, bloggers or business owners because with such statistics it would be possible to plan a strategy for business in different niches, like e-commerce, paperhelp online, any kind of services, or use it for the purpose of self-promotions for bloggers/website owners.
My name is Jamie Spencer and I have spent the past 5 years building money making blogs. After growing tired of the 9-5, commuting and never seeing my family I decided that I wanted to make some changes and launched my first blog. Since then I have launched lots of successful niche blogs and after selling my survivalist blog I decided to teach other people how to do the same.
If your company is business-to-business (B2B), your digital marketing efforts are likely to be centered around online lead generation, with the end goal being for someone to speak to a salesperson. For that reason, the role of your marketing strategy is to attract and convert the highest quality leads for your salespeople via your website and supporting digital channels.
Thanks for this info! My 14 year old step-daughter just got a new iPhone, so I was setting up the restricted websites. I also wanted to put out there that a website called wattpad.com is a bad place for kids to go, along with creepypasta.com. In the past we've found my daughter reading extremely hard core pornographic "fanfiction" stories. S&M stuff, I mean really hard core nastiness. And if you see anything with "X Reader", it's not a great sign. Also, I wanted to mention that Undertale could lead to some nasty stuff. It seems to be a fave story/game among the middle schoolers in our community. If anyone else knows of any random off the beaten path sites, please post them here!
Thanks for this info! My 14 year old step-daughter just got a new iPhone, so I was setting up the restricted websites. I also wanted to put out there that a website called wattpad.com is a bad place for kids to go, along with creepypasta.com. In the past we've found my daughter reading extremely hard core pornographic "fanfiction" stories. S&M stuff, I mean really hard core nastiness. And if you see anything with "X Reader", it's not a great sign. Also, I wanted to mention that Undertale could lead to some nasty stuff. It seems to be a fave story/game among the middle schoolers in our community. If anyone else knows of any random off the beaten path sites, please post them here!
Now imagine you had that brochure on your website instead. You can measure exactly how many people viewed the page where it's hosted, and you can collect the contact details of those who download it by using forms. Not only can you measure how many people are engaging with your content, but you're also generating qualified leads when people download it. 

Digital media is so pervasive that consumers have access to information any time and any place they want it. Gone are the days when the messages people got about your products or services came from you and consisted of only what you wanted them to know. Digital media is an ever-growing source of entertainment, news, shopping and social interaction, and consumers are now exposed not just to what your company says about your brand, but what the media, friends, relatives, peers, etc., are saying as well. And they are more likely to believe them than you. People want brands they can trust, companies that know them, communications that are personalized and relevant, and offers tailored to their needs and preferences.
Video advertising - This type of advertising in terms of digital/online means are advertisements that play on online videos e.g. YouTube videos. This type of marketing has seen an increase in popularity over time.[50] Online Video Advertising usually consists of three types: Pre-Roll advertisements which play before the video is watched, Mid-Roll advertisements which play during the video, or Post-Roll advertisements which play after the video is watched.[51] Post-roll advertisements were shown to have better brand recognition in relation to the other types, where-as "ad-context congruity/incongruity plays an important role in reinforcing ad memorability".[50] Due to selective attention from viewers, there is the likelihood that the message may not be received.[52] The main advantage of video advertising is that it disrupts the viewing experience of the video and therefore there is a difficulty in attempting to avoid them. How a consumer interacts with online video advertising can come down to three stages: Pre attention, attention, and behavioural decision.[53] These online advertisements give the brand/business options and choices. These consist of length, position, adjacent video content which all directly affect the effectiveness of the produced advertisement time,[50] therefore manipulating these variables will yield different results. Length of the advertisement has shown to affect memorability where-as longer duration resulted in increased brand recognition.[50] This type of advertising, due to its nature of interruption of the viewer, it is likely that the consumer may feel as if their experience is being interrupted or invaded, creating negative perception of the brand.[50] These advertisements are also available to be shared by the viewers, adding to the attractiveness of this platform. Sharing these videos can be equated to the online version of word by mouth marketing, extending number of people reached.[54] Sharing videos creates six different outcomes: these being "pleasure, affection, inclusion, escape, relaxation, and control".[50] As well, videos that have entertainment value are more likely to be shared, yet pleasure is the strongest motivator to pass videos on. Creating a ‘viral’ trend from mass amount of a brands advertisement can maximize the outcome of an online video advert whether it be positive or a negative outcome.

Owned by the tech giant Alphabet (Google), this interest-based social networking platform enables you to stay in touch with people by sharing messages, photos, videos, useful links to sites and so on. It also extends support for video conferencing through Hangouts and allows businesses to promote their brands and products through Google+ business pages.


That new app Down to Lunch is a new bad one its for sex trafficking it texts you and tell you your friends have invited you when they actually have no idea what the app even is. When you download it and signup it asks you for your address, and all your personal info. I know I got a text coming out of Atlanta Georgia that told me to sign up. So they already have our numbers! So all you parents warn your kids about this app!!
Testimonials. If case studies aren't a good fit for your business, having short testimonials around your website is a good alternative. For B2C brands, think of testimonials a little more loosely. If you're a clothing brand, these might take the form of photos of how other people styled a shirt or dress, pulled from a branded hashtag where people can contribute.
Skype, owned by Microsoft, is one of the most popular communication-based social networking platforms. It allows you to connect with people through voice calls, video calls (using a webcam) and text messaging. You can even conduct group conference calls. And, the best part is that Skype-to-Skype calls are free and can be used to communicate with anyone, located in any part of the world, over the internet.
Why Facebook decided to remove access to your messages from the official app is a mystery that we're all still trying to solve. But still, if you chat with your Facebook friend often, then Messenger is a must-have. The app lets you send messages to your friends or create group chats, and it's also a way to reach out to businesses directly. Messenger also includes access to stickers, GIFs, voice and video calls, and you can even pay people directly through Messenger.
Authors submitting their research article to this journal are encouraged to deposit research data in a relevant data repository and cite and link to this dataset in their article. If this is not possible, authors are encouraged to make a statement explaining why research data cannot be shared. There are several ways you can share your data when you publish with Elsevier, which help you get credit for your work and make your data accessible and discoverable for your peers. Find out more in the Guide for Authors. 
Brand awareness has been proven to work with more effectiveness in countries that are high in uncertainty avoidance, also these countries that have uncertainty avoidance; social media marketing works effectively. Yet brands must be careful not to be excessive on the use of this type of marketing, as well as solely relying on it as it may have implications that could negatively harness their image. Brands that represent themselves in an anthropomorphizing manner are more likely to succeed in situations where a brand is marketing to this demographic. "Since social media use can enhance the knowledge of the brand and thus decrease the uncertainty, it is possible that people with high uncertainty avoidance, such as the French, will particularly appreciate the high social media interaction with an anthropomorphized brand." Moreover, digital platform provides an ease to the brand and its customers to interact directly and exchange their motives virtually.[33]
There has been research that both substantiates and refutes the benefits of information brokerage. A study of high tech Chinese firms by Zhixing Xiao found that the control benefits of structural holes are "dissonant to the dominant firm-wide spirit of cooperation and the information benefits cannot materialize due to the communal sharing values" of such organizations.[66] However, this study only analyzed Chinese firms, which tend to have strong communal sharing values. Information and control benefits of structural holes are still valuable in firms that are not quite as inclusive and cooperative on the firm-wide level. In 2004, Ronald Burt studied 673 managers who ran the supply chain for one of America's largest electronics companies. He found that managers who often discussed issues with other groups were better paid, received more positive job evaluations and were more likely to be promoted.[48] Thus, bridging structural holes can be beneficial to an organization, and in turn, to an individual's career.
Instagram Stories have quickly outpaced the original Snapchat story. 11 out of 12 influencers now post more stories to Instagram than to Snapchat. It’s easy to see why: people watch 70% of Instagram stories with the volume on. Since the stories update average user time spent on Instagram has increased from 15 minutes to 28 minutes per day (Mediakix).
The marketing automation coordinator helps choose and manage the software that allows the whole marketing team to understand their customers' behavior and measure the growth of their business. Because many of the marketing operations described above might be executed separately from one another, it's important for there to be someone who can group these digital activities into individual campaigns and track each campaign's performance.

An omni-channel approach not only benefits consumers but also benefits business bottom line: Research suggests that customers spend more than double when purchasing through an omni-channel retailer as opposed to a single-channel retailer, and are often more loyal. This could be due to the ease of purchase and the wider availability of products.[24]

Another useful website is www.candyfist.com Which is built on a php platform. Nothing is creative about just viewing and liking photo's on your phone. I remember when Myspace had all the criteria of uploading photo's, music, blogging, chatting with friends, customizing your profile the way you wanted which showed teens how to code. This was actually useful and unique for individual members.

On the other hand, marketers who employ digital inbound tactics use online content to attract their target customers onto their websites by providing assets that are helpful to them. One of the simplest yet most powerful inbound digital marketing assets is a blog, which allows your website to capitalize on the terms which your ideal customers are searching for.


Meanwhile, the growing importance of Facebook, Twitter, and other social networks has broadened the philosophical debate. — Adi Robertson, The Verge, "The long, tortured quest to make Google unbiased," 6 Dec. 2018 In the control group, there was no interaction between participants at all—an anti-social network. — Scott K. Johnson, Ars Technica, "Being reminded of your political bubble can stop you from breaking out," 3 Sep. 2018 Basically, Instagram, the social network that is arguably all about how things look, is, in many ways, a young woman’s game. — SELF, "Can We Stop Pathologizing Minor Bloating, Please?," 17 Aug. 2018 Facebook is getting rid of its Trending Topics feature, according to a blog post the social network published Friday. — Louise Matsakis, WIRED, "Facebook Is Killing Trending Topics," 1 June 2018 LinkedIn, the social network for job-seekers, lets paying users see who has viewed their profile. — David Pierson, latimes.com, "Would you pay for an ad-free Facebook?," 13 Apr. 2018 That’s Mastodon, a Twitter-like social network that’s had a massive spike in sign-ups this week. — Brian Fung, Philly.com, "Facebook's poor care of customer data is leading users to Mastodon," 23 Mar. 2018 Or take Snapchat, the other social network that has fared well in recent years. — Alexis C. Madrigal, The Atlantic, "Retweets Are Trash," 5 Mar. 2018 September 2016 – Cruz cuts his arms in a video on Snapchat, a social network that allows users to exchange photos and short videos. — John Maines, Sun-Sentinel.com, "Florida shooting suspect Nikolas Cruz showed warning signs for years," 16 Feb. 2018
It is increasingly advantageous for companies to use social media platforms to connect with their customers and create these dialogues and discussions. The potential reach of social media is indicated by the fact that in 2015, each month the Facebook app had more than 126 million average unique users and YouTube had over 97 million average unique users.[27]
In many organizations, members tend to focus their activities inside their own groups, which stifles creativity and restricts opportunities. A player whose network bridges structural holes has an advantage in detecting and developing rewarding opportunities.[48] Such a player can mobilize social capital by acting as a "broker" of information between two clusters that otherwise would not have been in contact, thus providing access to new ideas, opinions and opportunities. British philosopher and political economist John Stuart Mill, writes, "it is hardly possible to overrate the value ... of placing human beings in contact with persons dissimilar to themselves.... Such communication [is] one of the primary sources of progress."[64] Thus, a player with a network rich in structural holes can add value to an organization through new ideas and opportunities. This in turn, helps an individual's career development and advancement.
The social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, or even entire societies (social units, see differentiation). The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions. The ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is, necessarily, relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be primarily conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is often ignored[6] although this may not be the case in practice (see agent-based modeling). Precisely because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, sociology, and sociolinguistics.
Digital marketing methods such as search engine optimization (SEO), search engine marketing (SEM), content marketing, influencer marketing, content automation, campaign marketing, data-driven marketing,[6] e-commerce marketing, social media marketing, social media optimization, e-mail direct marketing, display advertising, e–books, and optical disks and games are becoming more common in our advancing technology. In fact, digital marketing now extends to non-Internet channels that provide digital media, such as mobile phones (SMS and MMS), callback, and on-hold mobile ring tones.[7] In essence, this extension to non-Internet channels helps to differentiate digital marketing from online marketing, another catch-all term for the marketing methods mentioned above, which strictly occur online.
Using an omni-channel strategy is becoming increasingly important for enterprises who must adapt to the changing expectations of consumers who want ever-more sophisticated offerings throughout the purchasing journey. Retailers are increasingly focusing on their online presence, including online shops that operate alongside existing store-based outlets. The "endless aisle" within the retail space can lead consumers to purchase products online that fit their needs while retailers do not have to carry the inventory within the physical location of the store. Solely Internet-based retailers are also entering the market; some are establishing corresponding store-based outlets to provide personal services, professional help, and tangible experiences with their products.[24]
Who would have thought this was the history of Facebook? well - I'm sure it's heavily dramatized. The director did an amazing job here as did the main cast. The music by Trent Reznor and Atticus Ross set the tone so well (and is great music to work out to, incidentally). As I'm sure facebook will be around for a long time, so too will the legacy of this movie.
Using an omni-channel strategy is becoming increasingly important for enterprises who must adapt to the changing expectations of consumers who want ever-more sophisticated offerings throughout the purchasing journey. Retailers are increasingly focusing on their online presence, including online shops that operate alongside existing store-based outlets. The "endless aisle" within the retail space can lead consumers to purchase products online that fit their needs while retailers do not have to carry the inventory within the physical location of the store. Solely Internet-based retailers are also entering the market; some are establishing corresponding store-based outlets to provide personal services, professional help, and tangible experiences with their products.[24]
Learn the introductory theory and strategy behind marketing analytics that provides marketers with the foundation needed to apply data analytics to real-world challenges they confront daily in their professional lives. This course is part of the iMBA offered by the University of Illinois, a flexible, fully-accredited online MBA at an incredibly competitive price. For more information, please see the Resource page in this course and onlinemba.illinois.edu.
For example, to implement PPC using Google AdWords, you'll bid against other companies in your industry to appear at the top of Google's search results for keywords associated with your business. Depending on the competitiveness of the keyword, this can be reasonably affordable, or extremely expensive, which is why it's a good idea to focus building your organic reach, too.
Another useful website is www.candyfist.com Which is built on a php platform. Nothing is creative about just viewing and liking photo's on your phone. I remember when Myspace had all the criteria of uploading photo's, music, blogging, chatting with friends, customizing your profile the way you wanted which showed teens how to code. This was actually useful and unique for individual members.
The best part is that Google is a $30B company and there is no ways to contact them other then a single phone number. Here is when I get little upset, people know about google, but everyone still uses it like there isnt any other choices. Well, actually there isnt. Social sites are just for gather info about you and use it to make money. For us its just a way to communicate with others.
My eldest would chat to her friends every minute of every evening in parallel to life at home if allowed. They use What's App. Do you know how well managed this app is? Her other favourite site is Pinterest. I spoke to her and explained why I don't want her to use Tumblr or Facebook but one of the reasons I gave for not having a Facebook account was that she sees her friends at school every day, it's best for family overseas or people you don't see very often. She accepted that but the same could apply to a What's App. I don't think I would stop her using What's App cos she frequently shares the exchanges she has with friends with me and it's useful for communicating when they're doing homework, but sometimes I feel she is living her life in several alternate realities and sharing every minute of her friends' angst, fangirl hysteria and with some friends their loneliness. At the weekend I often take her iPod Touch off her and she participates fully in family life - still, only just a teenager!
I completely agree with you, Cyber Safety Lady. I think the Common Sense Media review of Kik needs to be updated. The sub-apps of Kik (available via a side swipe) offer their own versions of YouTube, Internet Browser, Image searching and more. There are parents out there that may think that turning off Safari will prohibit their child from accessing YouTube or other inappropriate content; however, Kik is a backdoor for your children to access these very sites. The problem with the CSM review of Kik is that it falls into the trap of categorizing the app as a "texting" app, but it is much, much more! Please re-evaluate the product and see if you agree that your review needs to be updated. Thank you Cyber Safety Lady! (I think I originally learned of the holes in Kik from you!)
The best part is that Google is a $30B company and there is no ways to contact them other then a single phone number. Here is when I get little upset, people know about google, but everyone still uses it like there isnt any other choices. Well, actually there isnt. Social sites are just for gather info about you and use it to make money. For us its just a way to communicate with others.
Why Facebook decided to remove access to your messages from the official app is a mystery that we're all still trying to solve. But still, if you chat with your Facebook friend often, then Messenger is a must-have. The app lets you send messages to your friends or create group chats, and it's also a way to reach out to businesses directly. Messenger also includes access to stickers, GIFs, voice and video calls, and you can even pay people directly through Messenger.
Social capital is a sociological concept about the value of social relations and the role of cooperation and confidence to achieve positive outcomes. The term refers to the value one can get from their social ties. For example, newly arrived immigrants can make use of their social ties to established migrants to acquire jobs they may otherwise have trouble getting (e.g., because of unfamiliarity with the local language). A positive relationship exists between social capital and the intensity of social network use.[61][62] In a dynamic framework, higher activity in a network feeds into higher social capital which itself encourages more activity.[63]
I'm sure there is plenty of self-loathing and porn on Tumblr. However, my daughter has been using it for years, primarily to participate in the fan communities of various TV shows, movies, podcasts, and video games that interest her. Kids in these communities demonstrate a lot of creativity as they role play, share artwork, and mash-up different stories. When drama arises in those communities, she is smart enough to stay away. She has also learned a lot about politics and gender roles, social justice issues and respect for diversity. I suppose we are fortunate that she has a good head on her shoulders and wants to share her world with us rather than hide it. 

The picture here is a bit different if we look at the brand names. WhatsApp and Messenger are in a close race for the top spot. But both of these most popular social media apps are owned by Facebook so the competition may not be as fierce as between completely separate companies. Then there’s a lot of Asian apps and then on the sixth spot is Instagram, again owned by Facebook.


Marketers use social networking for increasing brand recognition and loyalty. Because it makes the company more accessible to new customers and more recognizable for existing customers, social networking helps promote a brand’s voice and content. For example, a frequent Twitter user may hear of a company for the first time through a news feed and decide to buy a product or service. The more exposed people are to a company’s brand, the greater the company's chances of finding and retaining new customers.
Content marketing specialists are the digital content creators. They frequently keep track of the company's blogging calendar, and come up with a content strategy that includes video as well. These professionals often work with people in other departments to ensure the products and campaigns the business launches are supported with promotional content on each digital channel.
Affiliate marketing - Affiliate marketing is perceived to not be considered a safe, reliable and easy means of marketing through online platform. This is due to a lack of reliability in terms of affiliates that can produce the demanded number of new customers. As a result of this risk and bad affiliates it leaves the brand prone to exploitation in terms of claiming commission that isn't honestly acquired. Legal means may offer some protection against this, yet there are limitations in recovering any losses or investment. Despite this, affiliate marketing allows the brand to market towards smaller publishers, and websites with smaller traffic. Brands that choose to use this marketing often should beware of such risks involved and look to associate with affiliates in which rules are laid down between the parties involved to assure and minimize the risk involved.[47]

Contact with strangers is part of the experience. While it's great for kids to be able to feel a sense of belonging and kinship with others, the mix of kids and adults blended with all varieties of chat makes it risky. Also, unless a kid is in a closed group, everything they post is public, and other users can search for them. Make sure your kid's location is not included in their profile.
Data-driven advertising: Users generate a lot of data in every step they take on the path of customer journey and Brands can now use that data to activate their known audience with data-driven programmatic media buying. Without exposing customers' privacy, users' Data can be collected from digital channels (e.g.: when customer visits a website, reads an e-mail, or launches and interact with brand's mobile app), brands can also collect data from real world customer interactions, such as brick and mortar stores visits and from CRM and Sales engines datasets. Also known as People-based marketing or addressable media, Data-driven advertising is empowering brands to find their loyal customers in their audience and deliver in real time a much more personal communication, highly relevant to each customers' moment and actions.[37] 

Display advertising - As the term infers, Online Display Advertisement deals with showcasing promotional messages or ideas to the consumer on the internet. This includes a wide range of advertisements like advertising blogs, networks, interstitial ads, contextual data, ads on the search engines, classified or dynamic advertisement etc. The method can target specific audience tuning in from different types of locals to view a particular advertisement, the variations can be found as the most productive element of this method. 

In criminology and urban sociology, much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. For example, Andrew Papachristos[50] has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source, because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation, but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength.
IFTTT stands for If This Then That. It's a tool that actually lets you build your very own automated actions, called "recipes," so that you don't have to do them yourself. For example, if you want all of your Instagram photos automatically saved to a public folder of your Dropbox account, you can do that by building a recipe with IFTTT so you never have do it manually.
With brands using the Internet space to reach their target customers; digital marketing has become a beneficial career option as well. At present, companies are more into hiring individuals familiar in implementing digital marketing strategies and this has led the stream to become a preferred choice amongst individuals inspiring institutes to come up and offer professional courses in Digital Marketing. 

Establishment of customer exclusivity: A list of customers and customer's details should be kept on a database for follow up and selected customers can be sent selected offers and promotions of deals related to the customer's previous buyer behaviour. This is effective in digital marketing as it allows organisations to build up loyalty over email.[22]

This is a local search- and discovery-based social media platform that enables you to find the ideal places (based on your location) to go to with friends and loved ones. It also gives appropriate search results for the best food outlets, night entertainment places and more in your area. The social networking feature is now available in a separate app named Swarm. 

The social network is a theoretical construct useful in the social sciences to study relationships between individuals, groups, organizations, or even entire societies (social units, see differentiation). The term is used to describe a social structure determined by such interactions. The ties through which any given social unit connects represent the convergence of the various social contacts of that unit. This theoretical approach is, necessarily, relational. An axiom of the social network approach to understanding social interaction is that social phenomena should be primarily conceived and investigated through the properties of relations between and within units, instead of the properties of these units themselves. Thus, one common criticism of social network theory is that individual agency is often ignored[6] although this may not be the case in practice (see agent-based modeling). Precisely because many different types of relations, singular or in combination, form these network configurations, network analytics are useful to a broad range of research enterprises. In social science, these fields of study include, but are not limited to anthropology, biology, communication studies, economics, geography, information science, organizational studies, social psychology, sociology, and sociolinguistics.
Computer networks combined with social networking software produces a new medium for social interaction[67]. A relationship over a computerized social networking service can be characterized by context, direction, and strength. The content of a relation refers to the resource that is exchanged. In a computer mediated communication context, social pairs exchange different kinds of information, including sending a data file or a computer program as well as providing emotional support or arranging a meeting. With the rise of electronic commerce, information exchanged may also correspond to exchanges of money, goods or services in the "real" world.[68] Social network analysis methods have become essential to examining these types of computer mediated communication.
There are a number of ways brands can use digital marketing to benefit their marketing efforts. The use of digital marketing in the digital era not only allows for brands to market their products and services, but also allows for online customer support through 24/7 services to make customers feel supported and valued. The use of social media interaction allows brands to receive both positive and negative feedback from their customers as well as determining what media platforms work well for them. As such, digital marketing has become an increased advantage for brands and businesses. It is now common for consumers to post feedback online through social media sources, blogs and websites on their experience with a product or brand.[25] It has become increasingly popular for businesses to use and encourage these conversations through their social media channels to have direct contact with the customers and manage the feedback they receive appropriately.
Consumers seek to customize their experiences by choosing and modifying a wide assortment of information, products and services. In a generation, customers have gone from having a handful of television channel options to a digital world with more than a trillion web pages. They have been trained by their digital networks to expect more options for personal choice, and they like this. From Pandora’s personalized radio streams to Google’s search bar that anticipates search terms, consumers are drawn to increasingly customized experiences.
Authors submitting their research article to this journal are encouraged to deposit research data in a relevant data repository and cite and link to this dataset in their article. If this is not possible, authors are encouraged to make a statement explaining why research data cannot be shared. There are several ways you can share your data when you publish with Elsevier, which help you get credit for your work and make your data accessible and discoverable for your peers. Find out more in the Guide for Authors. 

This course examines how digital tools, such as the Internet, smartphones, and 3D printing, are revolutionizing the world of marketing by shifting the balance of power from firms to consumers. Marketing in a Digital World is one of the most popular courses on Coursera with over 150,000 Learners and is rated by Class Central as one of the Top 50 MOOCs of All Time (https://www.class-central.com/report/top-moocs/). This course is part of the iMBA offered by the University of Illinois, a flexible, fully-accredited online MBA at an incredibly competitive price. For more information, please see the Resource page in this course and onlinemba.illinois.edu.


Digital marketing is also referred to as 'online marketing', 'internet marketing' or 'web marketing'. The term digital marketing has grown in popularity over time. In the USA online marketing is still a popular term. In Italy, digital marketing is referred to as web marketing. Worldwide digital marketing has become the most common term, especially after the year 2013.[19]
That new app Down to Lunch is a new bad one its for sex trafficking it texts you and tell you your friends have invited you when they actually have no idea what the app even is. When you download it and signup it asks you for your address, and all your personal info. I know I got a text coming out of Atlanta Georgia that told me to sign up. So they already have our numbers! So all you parents warn your kids about this app!!
Thank you for your post, and I am very sorry for what happened to your child. You correctly point out that no amount of monitoring, including using software, can cover all the bases. There are just too many things out there and too many creeps willing to take advantage. I'm a "computer guy" with all kinds of filters, etc. on, but my daughter was given a thumb drive with executable VPN software to beat OPENDNS and my firewall settings. I only caught it by happenstance. So ignore any "bad parent" comments; those people just don't know.

The new digital era has enabled brands to selectively target their customers that may potentially be interested in their brand or based on previous browsing interests. Businesses can now use social media to select the age range, location, gender and interests of whom they would like their targeted post to be seen by. Furthermore, based on a customer's recent search history they can be ‘followed’ on the internet so they see advertisements from similar brands, products and services,[38] This allows businesses to target the specific customers that they know and feel will most benefit from their product or service, something that had limited capabilities up until the digital era.
In general, social networks are self-organizing, emergent, and complex, such that a globally coherent pattern appears from the local interaction of the elements that make up the system.[32][33] These patterns become more apparent as network size increases. However, a global network analysis[34] of, for example, all interpersonal relationships in the world is not feasible and is likely to contain so much information as to be uninformative. Practical limitations of computing power, ethics and participant recruitment and payment also limit the scope of a social network analysis.[35][36] The nuances of a local system may be lost in a large network analysis, hence the quality of information may be more important than its scale for understanding network properties. Thus, social networks are analyzed at the scale relevant to the researcher's theoretical question. Although levels of analysis are not necessarily mutually exclusive, there are three general levels into which networks may fall: micro-level, meso-level, and macro-level. 

Balancing search and display for digital display ads are important; marketers tend to look at the last search and attribute all of the effectiveness to this. This then disregards other marketing efforts, which establish brand value within the consumers mind. ComScore determined through drawing on data online, produced by over one hundred multichannel retailers that digital display marketing poses strengths when compared with or positioned alongside, paid search (Whiteside, 2016).[42] This is why it is advised that when someone clicks on a display ad the company opens a landing page, not its home page. A landing page typically has something to draw the customer in to search beyond this page. Things such as free offers that the consumer can obtain through giving the company contact information so that they can use retargeting communication strategies (Square2Marketing, 2012).[43] Commonly marketers see increased sales among people exposed to a search ad. But the fact of how many people you can reach with a display campaign compared to a search campaign should be considered. Multichannel retailers have an increased reach if the display is considered in synergy with search campaigns. Overall both search and display aspects are valued as display campaigns build awareness for the brand so that more people are likely to click on these digital ads when running a search campaign (Whiteside, 2016).[42]


I'm sure there is plenty of self-loathing and porn on Tumblr. However, my daughter has been using it for years, primarily to participate in the fan communities of various TV shows, movies, podcasts, and video games that interest her. Kids in these communities demonstrate a lot of creativity as they role play, share artwork, and mash-up different stories. When drama arises in those communities, she is smart enough to stay away. She has also learned a lot about politics and gender roles, social justice issues and respect for diversity. I suppose we are fortunate that she has a good head on her shoulders and wants to share her world with us rather than hide it.
Major developments in the field can be seen in the 1930s by several groups in psychology, anthropology, and mathematics working independently.[6][10][11] In psychology, in the 1930s, Jacob L. Moreno began systematic recording and analysis of social interaction in small groups, especially classrooms and work groups (see sociometry). In anthropology, the foundation for social network theory is the theoretical and ethnographic work of Bronislaw Malinowski,[12] Alfred Radcliffe-Brown,[13][14] and Claude Lévi-Strauss.[15] A group of social anthropologists associated with Max Gluckman and the Manchester School, including John A. Barnes,[16] J. Clyde Mitchell and Elizabeth Bott Spillius,[17][18] often are credited with performing some of the first fieldwork from which network analyses were performed, investigating community networks in southern Africa, India and the United Kingdom.[6] Concomitantly, British anthropologist S. F. Nadel codified a theory of social structure that was influential in later network analysis.[19] In sociology, the early (1930s) work of Talcott Parsons set the stage for taking a relational approach to understanding social structure.[20][21] Later, drawing upon Parsons' theory, the work of sociologist Peter Blau provides a strong impetus for analyzing the relational ties of social units with his work on social exchange theory.[22][23][24]
Master strategic marketing concepts and tools to address brand communication in a digital world. This Specialization explores several aspects of the new digital marketing environment, including topics such as digital marketing analytics, search engine optimization, social media marketing, and 3D Printing. When you complete the Digital Marketing Specialization you will have a richer understanding of the foundations of the new digital marketing landscape and acquire a new set of stories, concepts, and tools to help you digitally create, distribute, promote and price products and services. In 2016, this was one of the top 10 specializations in terms of enrollments. INC Magazine rated the first course, Marketing in a Digital World, as one of The 10 Hottest Online Classes for Professionals in 2015. In addition, this course was also ranked in the top five courses across multiple MOOC providers. Finally, the Digital Marketing Certificate was the top coveted certificate on Coursera in 2015. Get more updates on the specialization at http://digitalmarketingprofs.com/ This Specialization is part of the University of Illinois Masters of Business Administration degree program, the iMBA. Learn more about the admission into the program here. 

Another useful website is www.candyfist.com Which is built on a php platform. Nothing is creative about just viewing and liking photo's on your phone. I remember when Myspace had all the criteria of uploading photo's, music, blogging, chatting with friends, customizing your profile the way you wanted which showed teens how to code. This was actually useful and unique for individual members.
That new app Down to Lunch is a new bad one its for sex trafficking it texts you and tell you your friends have invited you when they actually have no idea what the app even is. When you download it and signup it asks you for your address, and all your personal info. I know I got a text coming out of Atlanta Georgia that told me to sign up. So they already have our numbers! So all you parents warn your kids about this app!!
An omni-channel approach not only benefits consumers but also benefits business bottom line: Research suggests that customers spend more than double when purchasing through an omni-channel retailer as opposed to a single-channel retailer, and are often more loyal. This could be due to the ease of purchase and the wider availability of products.[24]
Honestly, there's good and bad in anything the world throws at us. And Social Media is no exception. First of all, most social media (including Facebook) users have to be at least 13 to even sign up so there's no reason for "tweens" to be on them at all. That being said I've noticed that tweens that ignore the rules aren't very familiar with what's not acceptable. Most social media platforms are supposed to be only available for 13+ because the Internet is in fact a scary place and most children don't know how to use the Internet responsibly until their 13 or 14. On another note, I think it's important that parents are aware of what goes on on social media, however, unless you're child is under the age of 14 it's not acceptable to monitor everything and creep on their page and check their phone because even though you do have the right to know what's going on, your child is now a teenager, their probably in high school and they need "privacy". Always checking what their doing will more than likely result in you losing their trust because Parents, you don't need to know every single thing. If you're child is old enough to have a their own phone and almost finished with school, their old enough to have a private life. And I will be blunt when I say this, if you monitor your teenagers social media they will do at least one of the following: block you, make their account private, or make a new account that you won't find. And they won't do it because they're hiding something, they'll do it because they need space. Social Media is only dangerous when people don't know how to use it and regardless of how hard parents try to " protect" their children, it's ultimately up to the child to protect themselves. Their is a block button and privacy settings for a reason. Only the user can control it. And a tip for parents: not letting your child use social media when they ask to will only make them ignorant to it. This generation... My generation and the generation after me, we're growing up in the digital age and if you don't let your kid learn now it's going to take a while for them to get caught up later. Social Media is always changing and it's just part of our culture now. It's not dangerous unless you let it be.
Priit is the founder and CEO of DreamGrow Digital, an internet marketing and social media company. With his 20+ years internet marketing experience he is Helping companies to understand and use the digital marketing to reach their target audiences. He's also writing on a personal growth website Fixwillpower.com. He has spoken at hundreds of seminars and conferences on different aspects of internet marketing. Priit is also the organizer of Digital Elite Camp, a leading traffic and conversion event.
The criteria and metrics can be classified according to its type and time span. Regarding the type, we can either evaluate these campaigns "Quantitatively" or "Qualitatively". Quantitative metrics may include "Sales Volume" and "Revenue Increase/Decrease". While qualitative metrics may include the enhanced "Brand awareness, image and health" as well as the "relationship with the customers".
I really don't like Tumblr. Its built on angry and misguided teens. Our kid is fun loving, cheerful, athletic, smart and kind to everyone. He's still a teen. But those kids on Tumblr are the dark side - blogging about their cutting issues, their gay experience with another kid last night, how heroin should be legalized, how the world should turn trans, how its "not just a phase". Good god please don't pollute my kids head. While porn might not be on every page, its on every other page, and when it isn't porn, there's still bad language, sexual remarks and inappropriate content
The field of sociology focuses almost entirely on networks of outcomes of social interactions. More narrowly, economic sociology considers behavioral interactions of individuals and groups through social capital and social "markets". Sociologists, such as Mark Granovetter, have developed core principles about the interactions of social structure, information, ability to punish or reward, and trust that frequently recur in their analyses of political, economic and other institutions. Granovetter examines how social structures and social networks can affect economic outcomes like hiring, price, productivity and innovation and describes sociologists' contributions to analyzing the impact of social structure and networks on the economy.[51]
Studies of language and linguistics, particularly evolutionary linguistics, focus on the development of linguistic forms and transfer of changes, sounds or words, from one language system to another through networks of social interaction. Social networks are also important in language shift, as groups of people add and/or abandon languages to their repertoire.
Good list. For most of these apps there is no good reason to have them. Kind of like being out at 3:00 a.m., nothing good is going to happen. Also note that most of these apps have a private chat feature, including Instagram, Snapchat, Tumblr, etc. The "meet" apps are scary as well, because they really encourage random stranger contact. Pretty sure nothing will change unless a lot of bad things happen.

Complex networks: Most larger social networks display features of social complexity, which involves substantial non-trivial features of network topology, with patterns of complex connections between elements that are neither purely regular nor purely random (see, complexity science, dynamical system and chaos theory), as do biological, and technological networks. Such complex network features include a heavy tail in the degree distribution, a high clustering coefficient, assortativity or disassortativity among vertices, community structure (see stochastic block model), and hierarchical structure. In the case of agency-directed networks these features also include reciprocity, triad significance profile (TSP, see network motif), and other features. In contrast, many of the mathematical models of networks that have been studied in the past, such as lattices and random graphs, do not show these features.[45]
In criminology and urban sociology, much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. For example, Andrew Papachristos[50] has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source, because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation, but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength.
Kik- it's rated 17+ for a reason. ooVoo I have never heard of before. WhatsApp- heard of it, but it's not popular in my social circle, so I unfortunately can't supply any useful information. Instagram- fairly safe to use. Most of my friends just use it to chat with one another. Just make sure your kid sets theirs to private, and they should be fine. Tumblr- can have inappropriate content(porn, "smut", profanity, graphic images of self-harm, drug use, etc.), but is generally fine since content that one will come across is determined by who one follows and which tags they search for. Radical politics are a theme throughout the website, too, but as long as you keep tabs on your kid's blog, it should be fine. Twitter- can have profanity, but generally fairly safe to use. It's good as long as it's set to private. Vine- has plenty of inappropriate content. Not necessarily appropriate for every teen(let alone tweens), but most of it is just annoying stuff that kids at school will quote until they've sucked all the humor out of it. Burn Note- never heard of it, let alone used it before. Snapchat- pretty tame. Usually just videos of people acting like idiots and silly face selfies. Whisper- can have some pretty dark content. If I were a parent, I wouldn't let a kid use it. Yik-Yak- I'd watch them pretty closely if they're using this one. MeetMe- never heard of this. Omegle- keep them away from this. This is clearly for adults. Skout- don't know much about it, but I've heard of it. Tinder- this and Grindr are both hook-up apps that should probably not be used by teenagers, though they should be fine for adults. A few more to add: Google+- practically no one uses this, but it should be fine. Reddit- as long as they only subscribe to appropriate subs, it should be fine. They probably won't tell you they use Reddit if they do, though—it kinda defeats the purpose. Pinterest- absolutely fine for everyone. They might use Pinterest instead of doing their homework, though, so be warned... 4chan- if your teen is using this site, throw their computer out the window. 4chan isn't even appropriate for adults. MySpace- if your kid is using this, they may have blows to their self-esteem due to them not being ranked as their best friend's best friend. FaceBook- fewer teens are using this anymore. It's mostly just parents. I don't even know anyone under the age of 25 who uses this. Vimeo- kind of like YouTube, but fewer trolls in the comments section. YouTube- tons of profanity. Make sure they're only watching appropriate stuff. Voat- basically a European clone of Reddit. People who get banned from Reddit flock to there, though, so it's basically filled with the worst of Reddit. Digg- basically no one uses this. LinkedIn- teenagers will probably not be using this. It's usually accountants and businesspeople who are looking to get jobs. Flick- photosharing. Mostly photography. iFunny- funny pictures and internet memes. Lots of swearing, but the content itself is pretty tame. LiveJournal- don't know too much about this, but it's pretty much like its name. WattPad- monitor their use of this. It has lots of erotic fan-fiction. Text messaging- don't read these unless you have reason to believe they are in danger. It's kind of like reading their diary, if their diary was a chat log. Telephone- this is used less and less and texting more and more, but they'll be fine if they're using the phone to call people. Don't eavesdrop on their conversations, though. That's snooping, and those are private (to them, the person they called, and the NSA : ) FaceTime/Skype- they should be fine, but make sure they're safe if they're skyping or facetiming a boyfriend or girlfriend. Actually talking to people- if they're doing this, be glad. Don't eavesdrop. This is the most private mode of communication. : ) Basically, as a rule of thumb, if it's on the web for anyone to access, checking it out is fine and is never snooping, but if you're stealing their phone in order to read their text messages one they've fallen asleep, that's snooping, and it's probably going to make them trust you less. Also, teenagers might sign up for social media accounts without your permission or knowledge. This is pretty normal, and usually is fine, but sometimes can be dangerous. If they're over the age of 13, they can legally sign up for many social media accounts without parental permission, but it still is technically you responsibility as a parent to do your best to keep them safe online. Be aware of their online activity, but don't be nagging or nosy or disrespect their privacy. Hopefully this has been helpful : )
In criminology and urban sociology, much attention has been paid to the social networks among criminal actors. For example, Andrew Papachristos[50] has studied gang murders as a series of exchanges between gangs. Murders can be seen to diffuse outwards from a single source, because weaker gangs cannot afford to kill members of stronger gangs in retaliation, but must commit other violent acts to maintain their reputation for strength.
It is so hard to keep up with these apps so thank you for the list! I've found that the terms of service for the apps and reviews give parents the best guidance or can clue them in. When my 11 year old requested Kik, I checked online and saw that it was rated 17+! After carefully testing it, I found that because we have parental controls enabled on the old iPhone he is using, it did not allow for the web and image searching within the app so that was a relief and he can only communicate with the kids he knows. There is a very strict filter on the websites he can access since we have already gone down the road of accessing extremely inappropriate content. YouTube is another one that we block after finding him watching narrated Grand Theft Auto videos that were extremely violent and sexually degrading (which he came upon after watching a YouTuber gamer who originally discussed Minecraft). Now that there is a YouTube kids app, we have allowed YouTube again. It would be great to have all these apps on a list with the TOS, and any alerts that parents should be aware of because I am finding that most parents have no idea what kids add access when they are handed fully enabled smart phones with no restrictions or conversation. All of these things need to start being discussed around 9 or 10 it seems these days and don't assume that even the basic parental controls work well or that your child will not be exposed to it on some other child's unrestricted smart phone.

Thank you for your post, and I am very sorry for what happened to your child. You correctly point out that no amount of monitoring, including using software, can cover all the bases. There are just too many things out there and too many creeps willing to take advantage. I'm a "computer guy" with all kinds of filters, etc. on, but my daughter was given a thumb drive with executable VPN software to beat OPENDNS and my firewall settings. I only caught it by happenstance. So ignore any "bad parent" comments; those people just don't know.
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